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State law also provides that “religious justification for the violence or criminal activity prohibited by this Part shall not be considered a justification or defence … Tenn. Code. Ann. §39-19-809. The Book of Concord is the historical doctrinal statement of the Lutheran Church, consisting of ten documents of faith that have been recognized as authoritative in Lutheranism since the 16th century. [22] However, the Book of Concord is more of a confessional document (which establishes the Orthodox faith) than a book of ecclesiastical rules or disciplines, such as canon law. Each national Lutheran church establishes its own system of ecclesiastical order and discipline, although these are called “canons.” Later, they were collected in unofficial and unofficial collections. The first truly systematic collection was created in the 11th century. ==References=====External links===* Official website Pope Gregory IX is credited with proclaiming the first official collection of canons, called Decretalia Gregorii Noni or Liber Extra (1234). This was followed by Boniface VIII`s Liber Sextus (1298), Clementine (1317) by Clement V, the Extravagant Joannis XXII and the Extravagant Communes, all of which followed the same structure as the Liber Extra. All these collections, together with the Decretum Gratiani, are collectively called Corpus Juris Canonici. After the completion of the Corpus Juris Canonici, subsequent papal legislation was published in periodic volumes called Bullaria.

While the government may see a best interest, it must also demonstrate that refusal to adapt is the least restrictive means of serving that overriding interest of the government. This standard is “exceptionally demanding”. Hobby Lobby, 134 p. ct., p. 2780. It requires the government to prove that it is unable to accommodate the religious adherent while fulfilling its interests through a viable alternative, which in some circumstances may include issuing additional funds, amending existing exemptions, or creating a new program. Id. at 2781. In fact, the existence of exceptions for other individuals or entities that could be extended to accommodate the applicant while serving the stated interests of the government will generally void an RFRA defence, as the government has the burden of determining that no accommodation is viable. See id. at 2781-82.

The constitutional protection of religious freedom is not linked to the will of a religious person or organization to remain separate from civil society. Although the application of the relevant safeguards may differ from context to context, individuals and organizations do not renounce their protection of religious freedom by providing or receiving social services, education or health care; trying to earn or earn a living; hiring others to do the same; obtaining government grants or contracts; or otherwise interacting with federal, state, or local authorities. This parallel interpretation is consistent with the Supreme Court`s repeated view that the decision to incorporate the text of the law into a new law “is a strong indication that both laws should be interpreted pari passu.” Northcross vs. Bd. of Educ. of Memphis City Sch., 412 U.S. 427 (1973) (per curiam); see also Jerman v. Carlisle, McNellie, Rini, Kramer & Ulrich L.P.A., 559 U.S. 573, 590 (2010). It is also consistent with the fact that discrimination based on “religion” itself is used as something special and broader than discrimination based on “religious belief”. See, for example, Executive Order no. 13279, § 2(c) (“No organization should be discriminated against on the basis of religion or religious belief.” (emphasis added)); id.

§ 2 (d) (“All organizations that receive federal financial assistance under social service programs should be prohibited from discriminating against beneficiaries or potential beneficiaries of social programs on the basis of their religion or religious beliefs. Therefore, organizations that are supported in whole or in part by federal financial support in the provision of services and in their public relations work related to those services should not be allowed to engage with current or potential beneficiaries of the program on the basis of religion, religious beliefs, refusal to represent a religious belief or refusal to actively participate in a religious practice. to discriminate. »). Given that the decree uses “on the basis of religion or religious beliefs” both in the provision prohibiting discrimination against religious organizations and in the provision prohibiting discrimination “against beneficiaries or potential beneficiaries”, a narrow interpretation of the protection of the hiring decisions of religious organizations would result in close protection of the beneficiaries of the programmes, that are carried out by such organizations. See id. §§ 2(c), (d). It would also result in inconsistencies in the treatment of religious attitudes in government programs, as some program-specific laws and regulations explicitly state that “[a] exception of a religious organization under section 2000e-1 of this Title with respect to employment practices will not be affected by its participation or receipt of funds from a particular program.” 42 U.S.C. 290kk-1(s); see also 6 CFR § 19.9 (equal). The Supreme Court upheld an agreement that “courts should refrain from combing through the religious beliefs of any person or institution.” 60 The Court has recognised that churches and other religious institutions have the right, under the free exercise clause, to manage their internal affairs independently and without interference from State institutions. Moreover, such court action would involve the legal system in an investigation into religious authority and doctrine, suggesting the nature of the investigative disorder considered by the overabundance of entanglement of the Lemon test.